Leishmaniasis is the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. It is spread by the bite of infected sandflies – insect vector the phlebotomine sandfly.
There are around 500 known phlebotomine species , but only 30 have been found to transmit leishmaniasis. Only female sandfly transmits the parasites. Females sandflies need blood for their eggs to develop and become infected with the leishmania parasites , when they suck the blood from an infected person or animal. Over the period of 4 to 25 days the parasite develops in the sandfly. When this infectious female sandfly inoculates the person for the fresh blood for their need the parasite goes into the body of a person and the transmission cysle is completed.
One of the most common forms of the disease is cutaneous leishmaniasis that ocuurs commonly in IRAN , Afganishtan , Syria , Saudi Arabia , Brazil. A form that affects some internal organs of the body , Visceral Leishmaniasis mostly occurs in Bangladesh , India , nepal , Brazil and Sudan. Parasites causing leishmaniasis are not found in New Zealand , Australia ot the South Pacific.
CLASSIFICATION OF LEISHMANIASIS
It is divided into four main categories caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The clinical features depands on the causative organism. It can be simple slef healing skin lesions to severe life threatening disease of untreated visceral leishmaniasis.
AYURVEDIC CONCEPTS AND TREATMENT FOR LEISHMANIASIS
Ayurvedic Name :: Kala Jwara
Alternative Names :: Kala –Azar , Black Fever , Dum Dum Fever and Black Disease , Sand Fly disease , Espundia.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - In this disease people usually develop one or more skin sores- either painful or painless with or without scab -. They may develop after a peroid ranging from weeks to months after a person bitten by an infected female sand fly.
Viseral Leishmaniasis – It is the most severe form of the leishmaniasis. The parasite usually migrate to the viseral organs such as liver , spleen and bone marrow. Children are more susceptible to this disease.
AYURVEDIC HERBS AND MINERAL USED FOR LEISHMANIASIS