There are many types of nails diorders , catagrized into following .
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Nail disorders are caused by infections , skin diseases , benign or malignant tumours or certain systemic diseases. Chronic renal failure are the most known causes than other disorders.
SOME COMMON NAIL DISORDERS ARE
Ingrowing Toe nail – It may arise from poorly fitted shoes or improperly trimmed nails. Pain is often associated but may progress to infection and difficulty with walking. Wearing right shoes and cutting nail square and proper wash is the line of treatment.
BEAU’s LINES - transverse ridges are usually transient and due to a temporary disturbance of nail growth mostly in sever illness cases.
GREEN NAIL – Caused by pseudomonas infection.
BLUE NAIL – Usually as a side effect of anti-malarial drugs.
BLACK NAILS – Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Post irradication or may be afeature of Peutz-Jeghers disease. Black streaks may be indication of junctional melanocytic naevus or malignanat melanoma.
LEUCONYCHIA – WHITE NAIL-- May be congenital or due to minor trauma, hypoalbuminaemia in chronic liver disease , renal failure , fungal infection or Lymphoma.
YELLOw NAIL -- Excessively curved and thickened yellow nail which are slow growing are associated with peropheral lymphoedma and exudative puleral effusions.
CLUBBING – Cyanotic congenital heart disease , infective endocarditis. Lung Cancer , Pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis , bronchiectasis , empyema , lung abscess.
KOILONYCHIA – Dystrophy of the fingernails in which they are thinned and concave with raised edges – spoon shaped nail. Sometimes it may be due to Iron Deficiency or Trauma.
NAIL PATELLAR SYMDROME – Congenital nail disorder , autosomal dominant inheritance.
LONGITUDINAL RIDGING -- Alopecia Areata , Lichen Planus , Rheumatoid Arthritis and Peripheral Vascular Diseases are the most common causes.
ONYCHOLYSIS -- In this condition the nail becomes detached from its bed at the base side , creating a space under nail that accumulates dirt. Air under nail may cause grey white colour but can vary from yellow to brown.
In case od Psoriasis Nail seems yellowish brown margin between normal nail looks pink and detached parts become white.
If Pseudomonas grows underneath nail the colour becomes green.
When the nail becomes seprated from its middle then appearance an oil spot or salmon patch.
Onycholysis Causes Includes ::
Local Taurma or chemical induced
Skin Diseases Like Psoriasis
Idiopathic or Inherited
Systemic Diseases like Thyrotoxicosis
Thickening of the nail plate mainly seen on big toe of elderly associated with injury to foot , tightly fitted shoes and poor blood supply to feet.
CENTRAL LONGITUDINAL GROOVES DYSTROPHY
Most commonly results from compulsive habit of patient picking at proximal nail fold with index fingernail. It disappears if patient stop this habit.
These are linear haemorrhage lying parallel to the ling axis of finger or toe nail.
Trauma , Infective endocarditis , Vasculitis , SLE , Rheumatoid Arthritis , Polyarteritis Nodosa , Sever Anaemia , Hematological Malignancy are the main causes.
The patients suffering from psoriasis may get nail psoriasis at any time as the disease progress. Some patients gets it at very early stage aome gets late. This includes nail pits , transverse furrows , crumbling nail plate , roughened nail. Nail pitting is associated with Alopecia Areata as well as Psoriasis.
LICHEN PLANUS NAIL
Nails are involved in 10 to 15 % of cases of disseminated lichen planus. However nail may be the first and only presentation of the disease.
The matrix causes thinning , brittleness , crumbling of the nail with accentuated surface longitudinal ridging and coloue change to balck or white.
Lunula is raised more than the distal part of the nail.
The severe chronic inflammation causes either partial or complete loss of nail plate and formation of pterygium with partial loss of central nail plate seen as distal notch or completely split nail. The involvement of nail bed causes onycholysis , distal sublingual hyperkeratosis , formation of bulla or permanent anonychi.
Lichen planus may affect any number of nails anr AYURVEDA is the best and safe method of treatment for all types of Lichen Planus .
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
It is usually caused by infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18. The lesions that appears are skin coloured or hyperpigmented as keratotic or hyperkeratotic or warty papules and plaques found on the proximal and lateral nail folds and hyponychium.
Squamous cell carcinoma may extend into the nail bed producing onycholysis.
Occurs much more commonly on the fingres , usually thumb and index finger usually as solitary lesion.
Nail Matrix Nevomelanocytic nevus – presented as a longitudinal brown strip in the nail bed.
Acrolentiginous Melanoma – Mostly seen in the thumb and big toe with brown black pigementation of nail extending to proximal and lateral nail folds and even beyond the nail usually without any symptoms.
NAIL FUNGAL INFECTION – ONYCHOMYCOSIS
Itt is the inflammation of the tissue around the finger nail with pus accumulating between the cuticle and the nail matrix. The affected area becomes res , tender and swollen. Acute paronychia is usually due to bacterial infection and Chronic Paronychia are usually assocaited with Psoriasis and eczema.
Swelling , Throbbing pain , Erythema in the nail fold caused by bacterial infection S. Aureus and streptococci group
It occurs commonly in those patients whose hands are constantly in water with repeated minor trauma damaging the cuticle so that irritants can further damage the nail fold.
Infected with C. albicans and there are episodes of painful acute inflammation often due to infection between the proximal nail fold and nail plate from which pus may drain.
AYURVEDIC TREATMENT FOR NAIL DISORDERS
Ayurvedic Wash for nail for all types of nail problems. It is a natural antiseptic lotion which helps to remove the local infection of the nail and commnly use to maintian the hyegine of the nail and hands.
Oral herbal and Ayurvedic Herbo minearal medications are used for different types of nail disorders.Anti-fungal nail tratement