Hair loss – Alopecia –Baldness is usually because of the genetic factors , Diseases , Medications , Stress , Injury ,Infections of the scalp, Damage to the hairs.
Generalized hair loss is termed as Alopecia whereas small circular bald patches are termed as Alopecia Areata.
According to Ayurveda Baldness is “Khalitya” , Alopecia Areata is termed as “ Indralupta”
The Romkupa (Hair Follicle) contains bhrajak Pitta .The pitta which is present at the root of the hair increases in association with the vata , this leads to the hair fall. Then the Kapha and the Rakta together block the follicles of the hair by not allowing fresh ones to grow.
THINNING AND BALDNESS
It is called Khalitya and Pitta dosha is responsible for it. It is the condition in which there is complete loss of the hairs from the scalp. It is divided into two patterns – Male Pattern Baldness and Female Pattern Baldness.
The early hair loss is related to body type and the balance of the mind-body constitution. The poor circulation to the hairs and scalp is also the one of the main factor of hair loss. The capillaries which supply the blood to the hairs are very small and it’s very easy for the blood supply to be pinched off.
In Ayurveda it is known as Inderlupta where there is sudden hair loss, pitta an vata are the main cause of this. Its generally affects the beard area while Alopecia or Khalitya affects the whole scalp and when the entire body is affected it is called “Ruhya”.
The two types of hair loss are Scarring and Non scarring. In a non scarring form of disorder the hair follicle can generally regrow hair.
This is the loss of hair follicles causing the permanent hair loss. Cutaneous Lupus Erythematous and Fungal are the most prevalent forms of scarring alopecia.
NON SCARRING –
In this the hair shaft is gone , but the follicles are still present . Because the hair follicles still exists, it often is reversible. It can, however develop into the scarring type. Hair loss lasts for approx. six months.
Common Types of Non- Scarring Alopecia are-
The Classification and progression of Alopecia Areata
Male Pattern Baldness – MPB – Androgenic Alopecia
It occurs in the typical pattern and occurs as a result of the changes in the androgen hormones
Diffused Patterned Alopecia (DPA) & Diffuse Unpatternes Alopecia (DUPA)
Diffuse Patterned Alopecia (DPA) is an androgenic type alopecia characterized by diffuse thinning in the front , top and vertex of the scalp in conjunction with a stable permanent zone. Diffuse Unpatterned Alopecia (DUPA) is also androgeneic but lacks a stable permanent zone.
Female Pattern Baldness – FPB
It is a common form of baldness in females . FPB which occurs in about 405 of menopausl females.
Telogen Effluvium (TE) and Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE)
This occurs as a result of nutritional deficiencies, crash diets, high grade fevers, anemia , blood loss , hormonal imbalances and pregnancy . Telogen phase is the resting phase of the hair and effluvium means letting loose. Telogen effluvium (TE) is a form of non scarring alopecia characterized by an acute and generalized loss of hairs. In most of the cases TE recovers spontaneously within 6 months however if the hair loss persists for more than 6 months it is known as Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE) which is more difficult to treat and may lead to permanent hair loss.
The hair loss is as a result of compulsive or repetitive self pulling of the hairs by the patient themselves.
It is a result of hairs styles that tie or pull the hair so tightly that the hair roots are pulled from the scalp. This leads to hair root damage and the hair loss from that area.
Chemotherapy and Hair loss
There are different causes of hair loss in this condition. Not all chemo medicines causes hair loser thinning. But there is a hair fall in children who are receiving the chemotherapy. Because some ant cancerous drugs are made to kill fast growing cells of the cancer. However certain normal cells like hair cells are also fast growing so the chemotherapy affects these cells too. In most of the cases hairs begins to grow back several months after the chemotherapy ends.
Hair loss due to side effect of the beauty treatments
The hair dyes , bleaching , straightening , softening , rebounding , terming are the beauty hair treatments in which harsh chemicals are used which usually trigger the hair loss in some individuals.
Hair goes gray when melanocytes become depleted. The scalp contains a reservoir of adult stem cells that provide a continuous supply of these color-making cells. But as the body ages these cells become depleted and sometimes begin to develop in the wrong part of the hair follicle.
The scalp is nothing but the skin on the head. The skin of the scalp is same to the skin elsewhere. Like the body skin, hair skin also consists of two layers- the dermis and the epidermis. The hair is composed of a protein called keratin. The rate of hair growth varies from person to person. The growth of hair is always more between the ages of 20-30 and faster in summer as compare to winter. The hair dies and falls after a few years of growth. The average life of hair ranges from 2-4 years. But certain amount of hair is shed daily. The daily average shedding is estimated to be about 50-80 hairs. Hair loss beyond the estimated average indicates one or the other hair problems. Both male and female suffer from hair loss at one or the other point of time. The exact term used for any kind of hair loss is alopecia. Sometimes excess hair loss results in baldness also. Male hair loss and baldness is due to male hormones and often runs in families. It starts after puberty over the temples and the hairline that moves away and results in high forehead. The men usually start losing hair around 20-30’s. Some men have areas on the scalp that are very sensitive to the male sex hormones that circulate in men's blood. The hormones make the hair follicles from which hair grows and shrink. These hair follicles become so small that they cannot replace lost hairs. For men hair loss is male pattern baldness. It is mainly caused by stress, poor nutrition and unclean scalp conditions. When the cause is corrected the hair will start growing again.
Hair loss is different in women. In women hair loss becomes common with the growing age. Some women also suffer from hair loss after delivery due to inadequate nutritious diet. Total blandness is rarely seen in women. There are various other factors such as sex life, age, hair type, heredity and health that affect the hair loss.
Dandruff can be defined as the excessive flaking of dead skin that forms on the scalp causing unpleasant and irritating condition. Dandruff is made up of bits of dead skin that peel away from the scalp as a result of the effects of metabolism. It is not visible to the naked eye during the early stages of growth. It becomes visible only after enlarging into pieces of dead skin. Dandruff is of two types. Dry dandruff and waxy dandruff. Dry dandruff is also known as pityriasis capitis simplex and waxy dandruff is known as pityriasis steatoides. Dry dandruff results in itching of the scalp and the white scales are loosely scattered in the hair. In waxy dandruff the white scales gets stick to the scalp. Dandruff is often caused by internal and external causes. Poor circulation of blood, poor hygiene, improper diet, hormonal imbalance and emotional stress are some of the internal causes. The external causes are excessive use of hair sprays and gels, use of harsh and strong shampoos and environmental conditions. It is believed to be infection caused by bacteria and is contagious in nature. The common use of the brushes, combs, towels, soaps and other articles spreads it.
Split ends are also known as trichoptlosis. The women with long hairs are more likely to suffer from split ends as they avoid regular trim. As the hair grows and reaches a certain length, the protective layer of the hair, the cuticle, becomes damaged and the fibers of the inner layers, the cortex and medulla get flayed. The only remedy is the trimming of the hair on a regular basis. Ignoring the condition will only make the situation worse. The splits will continue up the hair shaft causing more damaged hair that will need to be cut off.
The people with oily skin are more likely to suffer from oily hair. This is mainly due to the over activeness of the sebaceous glands that results in secretion of excess oil. As a result both the scalp and hair becomes oily. The oily hair attracts more dirt and gives a greasy look. It needs washing after every third or fourth day. The oil secretion is also affected by the hormonal imbalance that can be a result of stress, anxiety, faulty living style and high intake of greasy foods. The oily hair is more prone to scalp infections, itching and dandruff, as they get dirty soon after head bath.
The inactive oil glands results in dry hair. It is also caused by over exposure to the sun, use of harsh shampoo and chemical treatments. Accumulated oil on the scalp blocks the pores and does not allow the free flow of oil on the surface and makes the hair dry. They give a dull look and become brittle. The dry scalp needs more care and nourishment. The people with dry and dull hair should increase the intake of zinc. Oil massage is also beneficial for dry hair. One should try to avoid hair dryers and other harsh shampoos that make the hair drier.
It is also known as lice infestation. Unhygienic conditions often results in lice infestation. The people with long hair are more prone to lice infestation. The pediculosis causes itching and abrasions on the scalp of the skin. It is one of the most common contagious childhood diseases. Head lice are totally non-discriminating and can infest people of any lifestyle, age, race, or socio-economic status. Lice can multiply and spread quickly from one host to another.
Premature graying of hair
Hair tends to lose its natural colour with the age but many youngsters are suffering from this problem nowadays and it has become a matter of concern for many. The melanin pigment is responsible for providing colour to hair and is synthesized by protein. Lack of this pigment may result in graying of hair. There are many other factors such as inadequate diet, fault living style, and use of chemicals, harsh shampoos and stress. Some chronic health disorders like anemia and constipation also cause premature graying of hair.