Ten (Dash) fold (Bidha) Examination (Pariksha) : This ten-fold Ayurvedic diagnosis of the patient involves body constitution, pathological state, tissue vitality, physical build, body measurement, adaptability, and psychic constitution, capacities for digestion & exercise and age.
1. Body constitution (Prakruti)
The prakruti includes the inherited and mental characteristics of an individual. These characteristics of an individual are assessed through the tridoshas and trigunas. The prakruti represents the proportion of the three doshas and three gunas. It has been determined by relative predominance of doshas during foetal development the prakriti can be any of vatika, paittika, kaphaja, vata paittika, vata kaphaja, pitta kaphaja or samdoshaja.
2. Pathological State (Vikruti)
It’s the degree to which an individual has deviated from the original proportion of the three doshas. Related to the biological history of the diseases in its entirety, It helps the physicians to consider the signs and symptoms of the disease to assess the strength of disease, causes, doshas, body constitution, affected body elements, time and capacity of an individual. Observing the dhatus, malas, function, structure, intellect and emotions of the individual can assess the pathological state of an individual.
3. Tissue Vitality (Sara)
Broadly speaking, there are seven vital tissues, namely lymph (rasa), blood (rakta), muscle (mamsa), adipose (meda), bone (asthi), bone marrow (majja) and reproductive tissue (sukra).
Lymph in the skin is assessed by its smoothness, softness, clearness, thinness and whether the skin is covered with short, deep rooted and delicate hair.
Percentage of blood in body is evaluated from the condition of the eyes, mouth, tongue, lips, nails and soles of the feet.
When muscles are in perfect condition, the temples, forehead, nape of the neck, shoulders, belly, arms, chest, joints of the body, jaws and cheeks are covered firmly with the skin.
People with healthy adipose tissue have oily skin and healthy hair, nails, voice and teeth. The health of bones is determined by pliable but firm forearms, chin, nails, teeth, ankles, knees and other joints of the body.
Healthy bone marrow leads to good complexion and stout, long, round & stable joints. Those in whom the semen is perfectly healthy, are strong and cheerful.
4. Physical Body Build (Samhanana)
The physical body examination is carried out by direct observation–a healthy body being well built with symmetrical bones, strong & stable joints and enough flesh & blood. The body build is the solidity and overall physique of the body frame. The more compact body usually indicates strong immune system.
5. Body Measurement (Pramana)
The body measurement refers to the ratio of the height to the outstretched arms and it should measure the same. The well-proportioned frame tends to have a superior health capacity and better diagnosis. In Ayurveda, body measurement is given in terms of fingerbreadth and any person in close proximity to the ideal measurements is termed as normal and healthy.
6. Adaptability (Satmya)
It indicatins the capacity of an individual to adjust to both unsettled physical and mental conditions and to maintain a balance. It refers to two types of people - those that are strong, adjust easily to difficulties and have excellent digestive capacity and those that are generally weak, intolerant to change.
7. Psychic Constitution (Satwa)
The psychic constitution (Satwa) refers to the mind which controls the body in contact with the soul (atma). It usually refers to the ability of the mind to tolerate and withstand such as pain, physical and mental discomfort. Depending on degree of mental strength, it is considered to be high, moderate or low. The capacity of an individual to remain even-minded and calm is a sign of emotional balance and a strong and healthy intellect.
8. Digestive Capacity (Ahara Sakti)
Every individual have the different digestive power. The digestive capacity refers to the assessment of the individual’s capacity to ingest, digest and assimilate food. It is assessed by the virtue of appetite and also its sharpness and strong ness. The other feature of assessment is the quantity of food consumed. The balance or optimum Ahara Shakti of an individual helps in faster recovery from the diseases and imbalances.
9 Physical strength (Vyayama Shakti)
The physical strength means the capacity of the individual to be physically exerted and is measured by assessing the powers of stamina. Assessed by capacity for hard work, it is either low, moderate or high. It is a good measure of certain metabolic measures that create strength and stamina.
10. Rate of aging (Vaya)
For convenience it is categorized into childhood, middle age and old age; it provides vital clues for the diagnosis & treatment and is a must consideration in clinical examinations.