Diagnosis in Ayurveda Tri Bidha Pariksha

Tri Bidha Pariksha

Diagnosis in Ayurveda Tri Bidha Pariksha

Tri Bidha Pariksha


Physicians need to perform clinical examinations of patients to confirm, evaluate and treat a disease, – wherein textual knowledge (aptopadesa), direct perception (pratyaksha) and inference (anumana) are all very important components. The examination of patients can be carried out in the following manners :

Three (Tri) fold (Bidha) Examination (Pariksha) Covers a general examination of the patient.

Involves :

1. Visual observation (Darshan)
2. Tactile perception (Sparsha)
3. Questioning (Prashna)



• Visual observation (Darshan)

This is the first method of clinical assessment. It can be defined as the method to know the nature of disease by examining the patient externally. In this method, the person is totally assessed by the physician and notes the enlarged or shrinked body parts, age, symptoms, strength, colour, shape of the body, dryness or excessive oiliness and colour and features of eyes.


• Tactile perception (Sparsha)

In this method, the physician examines a person by touching. There are various factors that cannot be understood by inspection and can be known by palpation. Palpation should be started from the organs near the organ to be examined rather than directly approaching the affected part. The tactile perception helps in understanding the reflexes, rigidity or softness of different organs, temperature of the body, texture of the skin, any swelling and tumour, flatulence and stages of different wounds and ulcers.


• Questioning (Prashna)

This is one of the important aspects of diagnosis. For this examination, the physician is required to be fearless, learned, intelligent, experienced, compassionate and patient. Interrogation is of two types: general and specific. The general interrogation includes the following points :

• Name, age and address of the patient
• Sex
• Profession
• Present complaint
• Duration of the complaint
• History of the previous illness
• Family history for diseases like hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy etc
• Individual history - addictions, habits, habitat etc
• Progress of the present complaint
• Any specifications regarding the disease

The specific interrogation includes the following points :

• Profession
• Financial status
• Addictions, diet and habitat
• Congenital anomalies
• Hereditary diseases
• Previous history of any diseases
• Psychological abnormalities
• Pediatric problems

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